Researched and Compiled by Miriam Medina

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*Please note this is a work in progress. New researched information will be added periodically.

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1) New York's first Irish politician, Sir Thomas Dongan, who became governor in 1683.

2) New York City receives a corporate charter from Governor Dongan; mayor to be appointed by governor. * (beatl.)

3) In 1683, the city was divided into wards by Governor Dongan. The West Ward took in both sides of Broadway, its eastern boundary being New Street, and its western one , the Hudson; it extended from Battery Place on the south to Wall Street on the North. The Out Ward was "To contain the town of Harlem, with all the farms and settlements on this island, from north of the Fresh Water." *(Bwy)

4) First meeting of the General Assembly was held October 17, 1683 in New York City with Matthias Nicoll as speaker. The province was divided into counties by this first Assembly. Its first act was to accept a "Charter of Liberties and Privileges," which had been granted by the duke. This instrument provided for self-government, self-taxation, and freedom of conscience, three principles which the people had long been striving for.*NYS History

5) 1683 The Towns of Brooklyn, Bushwick, Flatbush, Flatlands, Gravesend and New Utrecht join to make up Kings County * (BTL)

6) First Shearith Israel Graveyard at 55-57 St. James Place in Manhattan, this small graveyard of the Sephardic Jewish congregation dates back to 1683. * (Museums)

7) Wyllem Jansen Van came to New Amsterdam and settled at Flatlands L.I. in 1683.

8) The Schenck family, belongs among the earliest Dutch settlers in the New World. The first ancestor to come to America was Johannes Schenky who arrived and settled in 1683 on Bushwick, Long Island. The old burial stone of Johannes Schenck "first of the family departed this life February 5, 1748, aged 92" is now the property of the Musuem of the City of New York, Fifth ave. * (Hollanders)

9) The Towns of Brooklyn, Bushwick, Flatbush, Flatlands, Gravesend and New Utrecht join to make up Kings County. *(BTL)

10) Mass was celebrated for the first time in New York City, inside Fort james on October 30, 1683. * (epic)

11) On what slender threads hung the hopes and fears of our ancestors in 1683! On March 7 they noted a serious rival in trade on the opposite shores of the Hudson, and the Mayor of the city petitioned the Government and Crown to have East Jersey (which heretofore had been claimed as attached to the colony of New York, but had been separated) "reannexed to this province, as trade and revenue had suffered by the dismemberment, and fears were entertained in consequence that New York would be supplanted by the diversion of trade." At this time New York had the exclusive privilege, by law, of bolting and packing flour and meal, and this was the sole support of at least two-thirds of its citizens, and was complained of by the country people as a grievance.* (cdony)

12) In March, 1683, a law establishing the office of "viewers and searchers of chimneys and fire-hearths" inflicted a penalty of twenty shillings for defects in the construction of the wooden chimneys or the fire-hearths; and directed "that no person shall lay hay or straw or other combustible matter within their dwelling-houses, and that provision he made for hooks, ladders, and buckets," inflicting a fine of fifteen shillings upon "every person who shall suffer his chimney, to be on fire." (34)

13) The first House of Representatives convened in 1683. (39)

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1) Governor Dongan came promptly forward in 1684, backed by royal instructions, with orders that all towns bring their patents and Indian deeds preparatory to obtaining new charters. The authorities of Brooklyn complied with this order and after waiting until May 3, 1686, obtained a grant confirming former grants, and once more giving them a title to the land comprised in Brooklyn, Gowanas, Wallabout, Bedford and other sections within their jurisdiction. * (b.d.e. 9/25/1887)

2) In 1684 New street and Beaver street were ordered to be paved, and the first watch was appointed, consisting of eight persons, at 12 pence a night.* (cdony)

3) In 1684 religious dissensions began to agitate the people of the Colony. Governor Dongan and some of the principal officers were Catholics, and had been appointed by the reigning Stuart family in England. It was feared, therefore, that the Protestant religion was in danger. To further increase the fear, a Latin school was opened under the management of a learned Jesuit. * (cdony)

4) In 1684, the rates of ferriage to Nassau Island, (Long Island) were, for a single person, 8 stivers in wampum, or a silver two pence. Persons in company, half the above; or if after sunset, double price. Each horse or least one shilling, if single, or nine pence, in company. Rip Van Dam, being the "fairest bidder" for the ferry, had it on a lease of 7 years, at 165l per annum. (39)

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1) Pieter Van Stryker was one of the patentees named in the Dongan patent of November 12, 1685 and was High Sheriff of Kings County. * (Hollanders)

2) A further patent of confirmation to the town was issued by Governor Dongan, March 24, 1685, to strengthen the former title to the lands and to prevent controversy from Tackapausha, Succanemen. Runasuck or other Indian sachems who might claim the land belonging to the inhabitants of Flushing. The persons named in this last mentioned patent as patentees were Elias Doughty, Thomas Willets, John Brown, Mathias Harvety, Thomas Hicks, Richard Cornell, John Hinchman, Jonathan Wright and Samuel Hoyt. (B.D.E. 5/20/1894)

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1) In this year, New York was the first incorporated and chartered city in American colonies, although it might boast of an earlier existence as such under the Dutch form in 1653 and under the English form in 1665. (NYS History)

2) Governor Dongan's charter bears date of April 22, 1686. It recites that "Whereas, New York is an ancient city and its citizens a body politic and corporate and have enjoyed divers privileges and franchises and have established one ferry from said city to Long island for the accommodation and convenience of passengers, the said citizens and travelers do," etc., etc.This charter, granted, ratified and confirmed to the mayor, aldermen and commonalty, the aforementioned ferry, with all the rights, profits and benefits arising therefrom. (b.d.e. 5/11/1890)

3) In 1686, James II having come to the throne on the renewal of Governor Dongan's commission, refused to confirm the privileges granted when he was Duke of York. The assembly was prohibited, and orders were given to Dongan to "suffer no printing-press in his government." Much disaffection arose at this time among the colonists on account of the appointment of professed Catholics to the principal crown offices.* (owc)

4) In 1686, James II abolished the representative system, and prohibited the use of printing presses. A meeting of commissioners, denominated a congress of the several colonies, was this year assembled at New York. A regulation for lighting the city was established in 1697, requiring that lights be put in the windows of the houses fronting on the streets, on a penalty of nine-pence for every night's omission; and that a lighted lantern be hung out upon a pole at every seventh house, the expense to be borne equally by the seven intervening houses. * (owc)

5) The first House of Representatives was abolished by James II in 1686, during which year he forbade the use of printing presses. * (cdony)

6)  IN 1686, "by reason of great damage done by fire," it was ordered, first, "that every person having two chimneys to his house provide one bucket;" secondly, "that every house having more than two hearths provide two buckets;" and, thirdly, "that brewers shall have six buckets, and all bakers six buckets, under penalty of six shillings for every bucket wanting."  (34)

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In 1687 the news of the revolution in England and the accession of William and Mary to the throne reached the colonies. On the arrival of the news a militia captain, Leisler, seized the fort, where he acted as Governor, and convened the Assembly. Two years after, on the arrival of Governor Slaughter, Leisler and his secretary, Malborne, were tried and convicted of high treason in not promptly giving up the fort. They were executed, and the proceedings in Leisler's trial were printed in Boston, as there was no printing press in New York. * (cdony)

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1) Glen Cove was deeded in due form by Suscaemon and Werah, indian chiefs of the Matinecock tribe, to Joseph Carpenter, the first white settler, on May 24, 1688.

2) In 1688, the first Hugenot Church was established in New York.* (epic)

3) In 1688, the assessors' valuation of property in the several wards, which were called West, South, East, and Dock Wards, together with Harlaem and the Bowery, amounted to 78,2311. Of this sum, 29, 2541 was in the South Ward.(39)

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1) On the 29th of September, 1689, by order of the Committee of Safety, the people assembled in their wards and elected their aldermen and councilmen, and for the first time, their mayor also. * (hocny)

2) In 1689, Governor Dongan being recalled by King James, one Jacob Leisler took possession of the garrison for King William and Mary, and assumed the government of the province. Upon the arrival of Governor Slaughter at New York, who was commissioned by the king, Leisler refused to surrender the garrison, for the seizure of which he and his son were tried and condemned as guilty of high treason. Governor Slaughter hesitated to command their execution, and wrote to the English ministers how to dispose of them. Their enemies fearing a reaction in their favor invited the governor to a sumptuous entertainment, who when his reason was drowned in wine was seduced to sign the death-warrant. Before he recovered his senses the prisoners were executed. * (owc)

3) In February, 1689, "fire-ladders, with sufficient hooks thereto," were "ordered to be made;" and, having gone so far, the city fathers proceeded to appoint "brandt meisters," or fire masters, the "chief engineers" of later days. (34)

4) The large increase of houses in the city, noticed in a former section, necessarily caused an increased demand for building lots, and accordingly we find frequent mention of sales of public property for that purpose. A few years previous to the time now under notice, a portion of the old burying-ground in Broadway was ordered to be laid out in lots of twenty-five feet front, and " sold at public outcry." This is the first case on record of the sale of real estate at auction in this city. In 1689 fourteen lots, " near the Countess's Quay," were sold at auction for about thirty-five pounds each, and eleven others at twenty-seven pounds each. A little later public surveyors were appointed to lay out streets and lots; and frequent grants of land were made by the corporation for trifling considerations. (37)

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1) May 1, 1690, witnesses the first meeting of Commissioners (called a Congress) from the several colonies, preparatory tot he establishing of provincial laws, which was done in 1691, when the Duke of York's Laws ceased and the first General Assembly convened in New York, composed of seventeen members, selected as follows: City and County of New York, 4; Ulster and Dutchess 2; Westchester, 1; Richmond, 2: Albany, 2; Suffolk, 2; Kings, 2, and Queens, 2. * (cdony)

2) 1690 In this year an important office was established by the council, that of "inviters to funerals." Richard Chapman and Cornadus Vandor Beeck were the successful candidates for the position, and their profits were to be equal. Amsterdam was the sponsor for this office and its duties. At a funeral the inviter was dressed in black, with a mourning crape on his hat reaching to the ground, and carried a scroll in his hand containing a list of the persons invited. A similar office is performed to-day by the undertaker's assistant, which doubtless is a survival of the old custom. Hogs were not "suffered to goe or range in any of the streets or lands, within the fire wards, under the penalty of the forfeiture of all such swine," etc., and "poysonous and stinking weeds within this city, before every one's door, to be forthwith pluckt up, upon the forfeiture of three shillings for the neglect thereof." * (cdony)

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1) On April 13, 1691 Leisler and Melborne and six more of the council were convicted of high treason and condemned to death. Leisler and Melborne were executed before the great crowd of people in what was later the Commons, or city Hall Park in New York City * (NYS History)

2) New York City receives a corporate charter from Governor Dongan; mayor to be appointed by Governor Benjamin Fletcher passes Ministry Act -- provides financial support from provincial tax receipts for Anglican churches in NYC, Westchester, Queens and Staten Island.

3) In July of 1691 the first autopsy was performed in New York City on Governor Henry Sloughter. * (epic)

4) The "Ducking Stool", a form of punishment for scolds, was ordered built on the wharf in front of City Hall, New York. Although this form of punishment by plunging into water was not used frequently in New York City, it was common in the South. *(eoafd)

5) "Kings County, in which the township of Brooklyn is situated, has been called the garden of the State, and after describing its boundaries the writer says that it abounds with all the conveniences and many of the luxuries of life. The county, was first legally separated from other counties in the year 1691, and contained the several towns of Boshwick, Bedford, Breucklin, Flatlands, Flatbush, New Utrecht and Gravesend, with the settlements and plantations adjacent. After the Revolution an act of the Legislature was passed which prescribes that "The County of Kings", (the name seems to have been transposed from Kings County as before written, in accordance with changed relation of the country to the old gentlemen who filled the position from which the county was named. The County of Kings contains all that part of this State bounded easterly by Queens County, northerly by the County of New York, westerly partly by the Hudson River and partly by the ocean, and southerly by the Atlantic ocean, including Coney Island. " (Brooklyn Eagle: 5/4/1860)

6) In 1691 the public authorities sold all the land fronting the water, from Wall street to Maiden lane, for 25 shillings a foot, and from there to Cliff street for 18 shillings a foot. From Cliff street to Beekman street it was sold for 15 shillings a foot. Water lots were sold at one shilling a foot. On December 8 of this year a piece of ground was granted for the Dutch church in Exchange Place, between Broad and William streets, "175 feet on the north and 180 feet on the south, for 180 current pieces of eight, at six shillings a piece, to be paid upon sealing the patents." The church first built on this spot was erected in 1693. The lot was not to be appropriated to any other use or assigned to any other person. * (cdony)

7) Surveyors were appointed in 1691 to lay out streets and lots for each of which they were to receive six shillings. Of their work a chronicler of the history of new York says: "The moderate expectations of the founders of the city as to its future extent and influence, together with the European notions imbibed by them as to the compactness and narrowness of streets, as in the Continental cities, caused that closeness and irregularity in the ancient form and aspect of the city which has devolved on their posterity a full measure of vexation and expense in remedying the mistakes of their ancestors." * (cdony)

8) The colonists were preparing for family quarrels in 1691, as it was ordered "that there be a ducking stool built forthwith upon the wharfe before the towne-house" (Coenties Slip, between Pearl and Water streets). * (cdony)

9) Captain Kidd
Assembly Journal, Saturday the 18th of April 1691.

Gabriel Monville Esq.: and Thomas Willett, Esq.: are appointed to attend the House of Representatives, and acquaint them of the many good services done "to this Province, by Capt. William Kidd, in his attending here with his vessels, before his Excellency's Arrival, and that it would be acceptable to His Excellency and this Board, that they Consider of some suitable Reward, to him for his good services. * (man1869)

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1) 1692 dates New York City's custom of honoring notables and celebrating important events with impressive parades. * (epic)

2) On the 25th of February, 1692, the people of Brooklyn held a town meeting to discuss the question as to what should be done with the large amount of public land obtained from time to time from the Indians, when it was decided to divide the common lands and woods into three parts: 1) "All lands after Bedford and Cripplebush, over the hills to the path of New Lotts, to go to Gowanis. 2) "All lands and woods that lyes betwixt the abov e path and the highway from the ferry toward Flatbush shall belong to the freeholders and inhabitants of Bedford and Cripplebush. 3) "All lands that lyes in common after the Gowanis, betwixt the limits and bounds of Flatbush and New Utrecht, shall belong to the freeholders of Brooklyn, fred neck (Frederick Lubbersten's neck of land), the ferry and the Wallabout." The preceedings were reported to the Court of Sessions and duly approved by it at a session held at Flatbush on the 10th of May, 1693. * (b.d.e. 9/25/1887)

3) Abram de Peyster became Mayor in 1692, and he recommended that the city make one wharf fronting King street (now Pine street),thirty feet wide, and two other wharfs, twelve feet wide, one on each side of maiden Slip (?), running to high-water mark. It appears that the tide entered up the street as far as William street. "Spuyten Devil" Creek bridge was built in this year. * (cdony)

4) 1n 1692, one wharf was built, fronting King-street, (now is Pine-street,) of thirty feet wide; and two other wharves, ! of twelve feet wide, on each side of Maiden-slip, running to high-water mark, which was then, probably, as far up as William-street. (39)

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1) Trinity church in New York City was built and supported under the act of 1693, although not opened for worship until February 6, 1697. * (NYS History)

2) William Bradford, the Philadelphia printer, having become involved in difficulties in consequence of his connection with George Keith, who had attempted to produce a revolution in Quakerism, removed to New York, and established the first printing press in the city. He was at first employed by the city authorities to print the corporation laws, and a few years after established a newspaper, which proved a successful speculation. * (hocny)

3) In 1693 the Church of England became the Colony's official religion. * (epic)

4) IN 1693 the lower tip of Manhattan was named the Battery. * (epic)

5) The first bridge over the Harlem River was built under a franchise for 99 years, granted in June, 1693, to Fredryck Flypsen or Philipse, to build and maintain at his own expense a bridge over the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, and to collect certain "easy and reasonable tolls" from such passengers as might cross it. The bridge was to be twenty-four feet wide and provided with a draw of sufficient size to permit the passage of small craft. It was further stipulated that it should be free for the passage of the King's forces, and should be called King's Bridge. This bridge was built during the same year, a little to the east of the site of the present structure which bears the same name. It remained in the hands of Philipse's descendants down to Revolutionary times, when it was forfeited to the State on account of the adherence of the family to the English Crown.*(borobx)

6) July 8, 1693__"Ordered that the Mayor doe provide a coat of the city livery, with a badge of the city arms, shoes and stockings for the bellman, and charge it to the account of the city." Also, "ordered that the Recorder doe draw up an address to congratulate his Excellency on his safe return from Albany. "Further, it was ordered "that the Mayor doe provide a cup of gold to the value of one hundred pounds to be presented unto his Excellency on behalf of this city, as a token of their gratitude." The Mayor bought of Peter Jacob Marius twenty ounces of gold for the cup at a cost of 106, for which he and others gave their bonds, and desired a fund might be raised to pay the same, and it was ordered that the revenue of the ferry between the city and Brooklyn, "which doth annually arise, be not converted unto any other use whatsoever until the said one hundred and six pounds be paid as above."

7) In 1693 the Dutch built a church in Garden-street, now Exchange Place, and on entering that edifice the other house of worship passed into the entire possession of the Episcopal Church. This first Episcopal Church stood till 1741. * (lcr)

8) The first bridge over the Harlem River was built under a franchise for 99 years, granted in June, 1693, to Fredryck Flypsen or Philipse, to build and maintain at his own expense a bridge over the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, and to collect certain "easy and reasonable tolls" from such passengers as might cross it. The bridge was to be twenty-four feet wide and provided with a draw of sufficient size to permit the passage of small craft. It was further stipulated that it should be free for the passage of the King's forces, and should be called King's Bridge. This bridge was built during the same year, a little to the east of the site of the present structure which bears the same name. It remained in the hands of Philipse's descendants down to Revolutionary times, when it was forfeited to the State on account of the adherence of the family to the English Crown. (21)

9)I n 1693, eighty-six cords of wood, at 13 shillings a cord,were ordered for stockades, and to make a platform for a
battery, on the outermost rocks, before the fort. (39)

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1) The Quaker Meeting House, at 137-16 Northern Blvd, Flushing, N.Y. The meeting house was built in 1694 on land given by John Bowne and is one of America's oldest places of worship. It is a memorial to the early citizens of the Flushing area who refused to persecute the Quaker settlers as ordered by the Governor of their colony. * (Museums)

2) The Quaker Meeting House in Flushing New York was built in simple rectangular form with a hipped roof. The oldest religious building on L.I. it has been in continuous use.*(eoafd)

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1) Governor Fletcher approves grant of land in New York City for an Anglican Church; allows Dutch to use their taxes to support Dutch Reform clergy; greatly expands land patents to favored supporters.

2) Overseers to administer public relief to the poor were appointed in New York City. They estimated the amount to be handed out as well as the poor tax. Paupers clothed by the city had to sew a badge on their garments "with this Mark N.Y. in blew or red cloath." * (eoafd)

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1) The first attempt to clean the streets was made in 1696, when a contract was made at thirty pounds sterling a year.

2) The Kings Arms opened in 1696 on Broadway just south of Trinity Church. The Kings arms housed Manhattan's earliest theatrical performances.

3) Trinity Church was erected in 1696; the first sermon being preached on the 6th February, 1697, by Rev. Mr. Vesey, who continued as pastor until his death, about fifty years subsequently. The church was enlarged in 1737, it being one hundred and forty-eight feet in length and seventy-two in breadth. The steeple was a hundred and seventy-eight feet high. In 1761, it was struck by lightning, and consumed to the belfry. An excellent organ, brought from London, was one of the attractions of this edifice. Beneath the floor were vaults of the leading families attached tot he congregation, denoted by sculptured entablatures along the side walls in the building.* (Valentine's 1865)

4) On June 26, 1696, a city hall was ordered built on the corner of Nassau and Wall streets, to cost 3,000. It was a modest, plain, substantial edifice, sufficient for those days of primitive simplicity, and continued, with occasional repairs and alterations, until after the War of the Revolution. Prior to the assembling of the Congress of the United States in this city in 1787 and 1789 the building was altered and enlarged for its accommodation by the corporation, and remained so until demolished in 1811. It had a spacious
portico projecting into Wall street several feet and resting on arches, with arcades underneath, extending around into Nassau street. From the portico of the second story, facing Broad street, General Washington was inaugurated first President of the United States. * (cdony)

5) In 1696, Teunis De Kay petitioned the corporation for leave " to open a carte way" from the head of Broad-street toward the city Common, "by the pye-woman's," offering to do all the work necessary at his own expense, if he could have " the soil." Probably at that time there was an opening in the wall at the head of Broad-street, allowing the egress and ingress of teams and vehicles, as it is known there was no gate at that place. The petition was granted, and the beginning of Nassau-street was the result. At first, indicating the professed design of the projector of the enterprise, it was called " Horse-and-cart-street," and afterward " Kip-street," till it received its present name.  (37)

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1) Trinity Church founded by NYC Anglicans with royal charter from King William; given 7-year lease of 32 acres of prime NYC property [ "Queens Farm"] by Governor Fletcher; William Vesey (Harvard, 1688) named first rector of Trinity Church; held position to 1745 . *(beatl)

2) Stephanus Van Cortlandt, american merchant and politician was granted a royal patent in 1697 making his estates a manor and himself lord of the manor. * (C.E.)

3) In 1697 the first attempt at lighting the streets was made. This was done by hanging out a lantern and candle upon the end of a pole from the window of every seventh house, on the nights when there was no moon; the expense being divided equally among the seven houses.* (hocny)

4) The first regular night watch, consisting of four men, was established during the same year. * (hocny)

5) Fire wardens were probably the first paid fireman in America appointed for each ward in New York City. The Warden's main task was to enforce fire laws. Homeowners could be fined for dangerous chimneys as well as fires caused by negligence. * (eoafd)

6) In 1697 Church street was laid out, and a city watch of four sober men was ordered by the Council. * (cdony)

7) Lighting The City: "December, 1697: Resolved, that the mode of lighting the city be that 'during the dark time of the moon until the 25th of March next every seventh householder cause a lanthorn and candle to be hung out on a pole every night.' The expense to be divided equally between the seven. The aldermen are charged to see this done." * (man1869)

8) In December, 1697, it was ordered that, because of "the danger that may happen by fire for want of a due inspection made to cleaning of chimneys and mending of hearths within the city, two sufficient persons in every ward of this city be appointed as viewers of chimneys and hearths, to view the same once a week; upon finding a defect, to give notice that such be repaired; if a person refuse, he to forfeit the sum of three shillings, one-half to the city, the other half to the viewers." Still farther we read that "if any person's chimney be on fire after such notice, he shall forfeit the sum of forty shillings; if the viewers neglect to perform their duty, they forfeit the sum of six shillings, and others shall be appointed in their place." This is the first record of a paid Fire Department in the city of New York. "Viewers" and "overseers" there were already; but now arrangement was made for paying, for fining, and for discharging them; and also a systematic performance of duty was required: they were to view the chimneys and hearths once a week. (34)

9) The first order for lighting the city was passed November 23d, 1697, by which the owners of houses were required to put lights in their windows fronting the streets, under penalty of nine pence for each night of default; and on the 2d of December following, it was ordered, "that every seventh house do hang out a pole with a lantern and candle; and the said seven ho9uses do pay an equal portion fo the expense."  (39)

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1) The first census of Kings County is taken, listing the population of King's County as 2,017 (1,721 white; 296 of African descent).

2) The first Trinity Church went up on the west side of Broadway at the head of Wall Street. It was first used for religious services on March 13, 1698.

3) In 1698, the Town granted liberty to John Robinson to set up a grist and fueling mill at the Head-of-the-Harbour, on condition of grinding for its inhabitants one twelfth of all the grain ground. The mill passed to various owners, until finally it came into the possession of Hendrick Onderdonk, grandfather of the Bishops Onderdonk. *(E.L.I.)

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1) In 1699 Captain Johannes Benson (1655-1715) purchased a hundred acres in what was later Greenwich Village for which he paid 2000 guilders. * (Hollanders)

2) A more famous, or rather, infamous, building than the Bridewell also stood in the Commons, northeast of the City Hall. The old City Hall in Wall Street (erected in 1699) had been used as a jail and debtor's prison. * (bwy)

3) Ferry to Long Island: 1699, February. The ferry is let for seven years, on condition of security for payment given. The farmer to provide two great boats or scows for cattle, etc., and two small boats for passengers, one of each to be kept on each side. That the city build a ferry-house within the first year of the lease. The fare for a single person is fixed at eight strivers in wampum, or a silver two pence. If a company cross together, each to pay four silvers in wampum or a silver penny; but after sunset double ferriage. A single horse, 1s.; several in company 9d.; a colt 3d.; a hog, the same as a single person; a sheep, half; a barrel of liquid, 3d; an empty barrel, four strivers in wampum, or a silver penny; a beast's hide, do; a firkin or tub of butter, two strivers in wampum; a bushel of corn, half; a hogshead of tobacco, 9d. The rent per year, 165. * (man1869)

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