Section: Harlem, New York City
 

Directory: New York City History

 Summary: Click on the link to view the complete article.  NOTE: May open in new window and leave The History Box.com's Website
 
 
   
Section: BUILDINGS and Institutions of Harlem and the Heights  (with a historical overview)


Web Link: St. Paul's Chapel at Columbia University campus
Web Link: Cathedral of Saint John the Divine
Web Link: Barnard College
Web Link: Grant's Tomb
Web Link: Morris-Jumel Mansion
Web Link: The Cloisters
Web Link: Abyssinian Baptist Church
Web Link: Apollo Theater
Web Link: Neighborhood Sites and Landmarks


Section: EARLY HISTORY : Harlem, was once a district of quiet farms, where lived a few Hollanders, French Huguenots, Danes, Swedes, and Germans. For three decades the Germans were the dominant element, with the Irish ranking second. The immigration waves of the 1880s and 1890s brought in Jews and Italians. Then the African- American began to come in from downtown, from the South, and from the West Indies. There are four Harlems: Black, Spanish, Jewish and Italian. By the 1930s half a million people crowded into the largest slum area in New York.

Read a Five Page essay on East Harlem by the title of "The Ebb and Flow of East Harlem's Ethnic Changes"



   
                    
   
Article Name: A Memory of Old Harlem                                           Posted 10/1/06
Article Name: When Harlem Was A Village Part I                            Posted 7/17/08
Article Name: When Harlem Was A Village Part II                           Posted 7/17/08
Article Name: The First Settlers of New Harlem Part I                    Posted 9/5/08
Article Name: The First Settlers of New Harlem Part II                    Posted 9/5/08
Article Name: The First Settlers of New Harlem Part III                   Posted 9/5/08
Article Name: Uptown Shopping Center, Harlem 1900 Part I           Posted 11/08/08
Article Name: Uptown Shopping Center, Harlem 1900 Part II          Posted 11/08/08
Article Name: Uptown Shopping Center, Harlem 1900 Part III (more to come)                           Posted 11/08/08
Article Name: Harlem in the Old Times                                                                                        Posted 1/06/09
Article Name: Brief Sketch of Businesses In Harlem, New York Pre: 1891 Part I                      Posted 3/15/09
Article Name: Brief Sketch of Businesses In Harlem, New York Pre: 1891 Part II                     Posted 3/15/09
Article Name: Brief Sketch of Businesses In Harlem, New York Pre: 1891 Part III                    Posted 3/15/09
Article Name: Brief Sketch of Businesses In Harlem, New York Pre: 1891 Part IV (Final Part)  Posted 3/15/09
Web Link: Wrestling With Harlem
Web Link: A Glance At Harlem
Web Link: Rambles Around Harlem


Sub Section Miscellaneous Harlem Tid-Bits
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #1 (June)1898           Posted 8/29/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #2 (June) 1898          Posted 8/29/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #3 (June) 1898          Posted 8/29/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #4 ( July) 1898          Posted 8/29/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #5 (July) 1898           Posted 8/29/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #6 (July) 1898           Posted 9/16/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #7 (August) 1898      Posted 9/16/07
Article Name: Just Rambling About Harlem And The Bronx #8 (August) 1898      Posted 9/16/07
Article Name: Diphtheria In Harlem 1878                                          Posted 1/15/09
Article Name: Harlem Chit-Chat 1868                                               Posted 1/15/09
Article Name: Harlem Chit-Chat 1869                                               Posted 1/15/09
Article Name: Harlem Chit-Chat 1870                                               Posted 1/15/09


Section: THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY : In spite of  their early ancestral history of abuses, cruelties and struggles to gain their freedom, and defend their rights, the African-American community has always moved forward in this country gaining respect and admiration from the American people. Over the years they have made an enormous and outstanding contribution of their war service, talents, knowledge and creative abilities to the American Culture which are far too many to name. America's theater and music halls have been deeply enriched  by black entertainers, many of which have found their way through the ghettos climbing the entertainment ladder to wealth and fame. One of the greatest accomplishments that the African-American community has been able to witness in this  21st century is the Inauguration  of the first African-American ever to be  elected to the office of President of the United States,  Barack Obama. This great historical moment will take place in the month of January, 2009.


Special Section This section reflects on the subject of slavery in America, the civil rights movement and accomplishments of the African-American.


Sub Section The African-American Community


Web Link: Seneca Village
Web Link: Early Recordings of African Americans/ Early Ragtime
Web Link: A Black History of Jamaica, New York
Web Link: Slave Island-New York's Hidden History
Web Link: Cab Calloway, perfomer at the Cotton Club
Web Link: Dorothy Dandridge
Web Link: Harlem Groups
Web Link: The Rise of Black Professionals
Web Link: The Girl's Choir of Harlem
Web Link: The Harlem Globetrotters
Web Link: The Boys Choir of Harlem Sings A Song of Hope
Web Link: Breaking Racial Barriers: African Americans in the Harmon Foundation Collection
Web Link: Jacob Lawrence: One of the Most Important Artists of the 20th Century
Web Link: Madame C. J. Walker-Inventor and Businesswoman
Web Link: Marian Anderson: A Life in Song
Web Link: Charles Richard Drew: Physician and Surgeon
Web Link: From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection1822-1909
Web Link: Free Blacks Before the Civil War
Web Link: Serving the Union: U.S. Colored Troops in the Retreat to Appomattox
Web Link: Hallie Quinn Brown 1850-1949 Educator, Lecturer and Clubwoman
Web Link: Classic Black - photography exhibit of African American ballet dancers, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, New York
Web Link: On the Conditions of the Free People of Color in the United States, Anti-Slavery Examiner 13 New York, 1839
Web Link: Booker T. Washington                  all links working properly a/o 11/4/2011


Section: HARLEM: Historic Heart of Black New York: Prior to the 1940s, the African-Americans that lived in Harlem paid 50% higher rents than those charged for equivalent dwellings elsewhere in the city. They practiced their professions and enjoyed comparative freedom from oppression and prejudice. Famous clubs and theaters such as the Apollo, a place where stars were born and legends made, Cotton Club, the Savoy and the Audubon ballroom  flourished .
Web Link: More Harlem History
Web Link: Harlem History (N.Y. Architecture)
Web Link: Unpacking Harlem History
Web Link: The Cotton Club
Web Link: Cab Calloway, Performer at the Cotton Club
Web Link: Dorothy Dandridge
Web Link: The History of Harlem's Apollo Theatre
Web Link: About the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem
Web Link: History of Swing Dancing
Web Link: Jazz Dance
Web Link: The Audubon Ballroom
Web Link: New York and Harlem Railroad and the Harlem Valley Line
Web Link: Harlem Groups
Web Link: Free To Dance, Dance Timeline
Web Link: The Harlem Globetrotters
Web Link: Harlem in the 1940's
Web Link:
Web Link: Harlem
Web Link: NYPL Exhibition Portfolio: Harlem 1900-1940 An African-American Community
Web Link: Harlem: The Early Years
Web Link: Harlem Slang From the Thirties
Web Link: The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B. Du Bois
Web Link: The Black North: A Social Study by W.E. Burghardt Du Bois
Web Link: Gay Men, Lesbians, Bisexuals and Transgenders in Harlem
Web Link: Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I            Links working 11/4/2011


Sub Section The Following articles reflecting on his years in Harlem were written by Thomas Fleming, age 90, the longtime executive editor of Reporter Publishing Company, Northern California's leading chain of African American newspapers.


Web Link: Jacksonville, 1907-16
Web Link: Black Entertainers on Vaudeville
Web Link: A Stowaway to New York
Web Link: Boyhood In Harlem 1916-19
Web Link: Marcus Garvey Comes To Harlem
Web Link: Encounters With Fats Waller
Web Link: The Rise of Black Professionals
Web Link: Mischief-Making in Harlem
Web Link: Goodbye to New York


Sub Section Harlem Stories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writer's Project 1936-1940


Web Link: Harlem House Rent Parties
Web Link: The Whites Invade Harlem by Levi C. Hubert
Web Link: Harlem Beauty Shops
Web Link: Harlem Conjure Man
Web Link: Harlem Swing Club
Web Link: Mae Berkeley
Web Link: Life in the Harlem Markets
Web Link: Harlem
Web Link: Street Cries and Criers of New York
Web Link: Harlem Riot
Web Link: The Private Life of Big Bess
Web Link: Slick Reynolds-Harlem House Rent Parties
Web Link: Amatuer Night in Harlem
Web Link: Racehorse Row
Web Link: Fatso the Slickster                             all links working properly a/o 11/2/2011


 

THE   HARLEM  RENAISSANCE  AND  THE  FLOWERING  OF  CREATIVITY



Section: Between 1915-1920, hundreds of thousands of African-Americans began to migrate at a fast pace from the "economically depressed rural South to the industrial cities of the North to take advantage of urban economic opportunities in steel mills, auto factories and packing houses. Thousands would also fan out to the black ghettos of New York City, seeking work in the bars and cabarets. During the decade, many positive changes were beginning to occur within Harlem's African-American community. Black intellectuals began to show a new intense enthusiasm for their African heritage. A rising popular interest in African-American literature sparked the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance which was one of this nation's greatest outpouring of music, literature, art and racial pride.


 

 Mimi Speaks Blog: The Harlem Renaissance and the Flowering of Creativity

   
Web Link: Minnie the Moocher: The Harlem Renaissance_YouTube
Web Link: Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture BY Caroline Jackson
Web Link: The Harlem Renaissance Brought to you by Carroll University
Web Link: A Brief Guide To the Harlem Renaissance
Web Link: World War I and Postwar Society Part I
Web Link: The Harlem Renaissance and the Flowering of Creativity Part II
Web Link: The Harlem Renaissance by Steve Watson
Web Link: A Spectacle in Color: The Lesbian and Gay Subculture of Jazz Age Harlem by Eric Garber
Web Link: Double-Bind: Three Women of the Harlem Renaissance
Web Link: A Brief Guide to Jazz Poetry
Web Link: Lesson Plan: The Trials and Tribulations of the Harlem renaissance
Web Link: Art of the Harlem Renaissance
Web Link: The Black Renaissance in Washington, D.C. 1920-1930s : The cultural renaissance was not only limited to Harlem, but was evident in other cities across the country.
Web Link: The Impact of the Music of the Harlem Renaissance on Society by Kenneth B. Hilliard
Web Link: The Social Contributions of The Harlem Renaissance by Henry Rhodes
Web Link: Biographies of the Harlem Renaissance


Sub Section: Performers, Musicians, Writers and Artists of the Harlem Renaissance


Web Link: Louis Armstrong-Musician
Web Link: Josephine Baker
Web Link: Gwendolyn Bennett
Web Link: Marita Bonner
Web Link: Benny Carter-Musician
Web Link: Wallace Thurman
Web Link: W.E.B. DuBois
Web Link: Billie Holiday
Web Link: Paul Robeson
Web Link: Arna Bontemps-Writer
Web Link: Carl Van Vechten
Web Link: James Fletcher Henderson
Web Link: Fats Waller
Web Link: Ella Fitzgerald-Age of Jazz
Web Link: Jelly Roll Morton
Web Link: Original Dixieland Jazz Band
Web Link: Sara Vaughan
Web Link: Ethel Waters
Web Link: The Faces of Jazz By W. Royal Stokes


Sub Section: Poets of the Renaissance Era
Web Link: The Weary Blues by Langston Hughes
Web Link: Dream Variations by Langston Hughes
Web Link: The Negro Speaks of Rivers by Langston Hughes
Web Link: Theme for English B by Langston Hughes
Web Link: Langston Hughes: The Songs on Seventh Street
Web Link: Langston Hughes on Harlem in the 1920s
Web Link: Lesson Plan on Langston Hughs
Web Link: Paul Laurence Dunbar
Web Link: James Weldon Johnson
Web Link: Claude McKay
Web Link: Jean Toomer
Web Link: Arna Bontemps


Sub Section: YouTubes of Black Performers and Their Music


Web Link: Lena Horne-Stormy Weather (1943)
Web Link: One O'Clock Jump-Count Bassie with Clark Terry
Web Link: Louis Armstrong- Dream a Little Dream
Web Link: Ray Charles-Georgia On My Mind
Web Link: Stevie Wonder-Superstition
Web Link: Ray Charles-Hit the Road Jack

 
Section: SPANISH HARLEM: (El Barrio) Also Called East Harlem:  (Under separate page click here) It clusters around the 110th street station of the Lexington Avenue subway. East Harlem covers the area between Fifth Avenue and the East River from 96th to 142nd Street. The bulk of the population in this area by the 1930s  were circa 50,000  Puerto Ricans, though it is today becoming increasingly mixed. The Puerto Ricans  settled here because of low rents and freedom from racial discrimination. One of the sites not to be missed in  El Barrio  is the market place "La Marqueta," that extends along Park Avenue from 111th to 116th streets. You will find a large variety of affordable  international food  and meat products. As far as I could remember it was there in the 1940s. Restaurants and cafs offering such irresistible alluring aromas of numerous Spanish dishes draw  much of their patronage from visitors to the area..n:ection:

Section: ITALIAN HARLEM:  (Under separate page click here) Between 1920 until WWII, Italian Harlem was located in current day East Harlem between 96th Street and 125th Street and from Lexington Avenue to East River. It was home to an estimated 89,000 first and second generation Italian Americans. East Harlem became "Italian Harlem" after Italian immigrants settled there while they were hired to build trolley tracks on Fifth Avenue. They followed their jobs and displaced the previous Irish residents who moved to other parts of the city or to the suburbs. By 1880, there were 4,000 people living in East Harlem

Section: JEWISH HARLEM: East Harlem was one of the major locations for Jewish residences. Jewish families first started moving to Harlem with the construction of the elevated railroads in the 1870s.In historical documents, it is described as congested and degraded, suggesting the reality of poverty at the time.  By 1921 Harlem had a population of circa 180,000. Many of the Jewish merchants established their own shops in La Marqueta, a haberdashery off 115th and Park Avenue which is still up and running.


Article Name: In the New Hebrew Quarter of Harlem 1904 Part I                              Posted 9/24/08
Article Name: In the New Hebrew Quarter of Harlem 1904 Part II                              Posted 9/24/08
Web Link: All about Jewish Harlem Part I
Web Link: All About Jewish Harlem Part II
Web Link: When Harlem was Jewish -Excerpt
Web Link: Jews in Odd Places: Harlem
Web Link:
Web Link: Synagogue Preserves Harlem's Forgotten Heritage
Web Link: Vestiges of Harlem's Jewish Past
Web Link: When Harlem Was Jewish
Web Link: Immigrant Heritage Trail
Web Link: Jewish Heroes and Heroines In America 1900 to World War II
Web Link: Pastrami Land, the Jewish deli in New York City
Web Link: Centered Around a college, Family Guides Harlem's Jewish Renaissance

 

All Links Reviewed On This Page and working: A/O 11/4/2011                          Report Broken Links

 
 
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