Miscellaneous Tid-Bits With Regard To The American Indian Part II

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Fox     Volume: VIII   Page: 124

An Algonquian people, best known as confederates of the Sauk. They were called foxes (Renards) by the French, possibly because of having a Fox clan; but call themselves Muskwakiuk, "red-earth people." When first known they lived in central Wisconsin, having been driven from Lake Superior by the Ojibwa, whose continued inroads, together with a disastrous war with the French finally compelled them to incorporate about 1760 with the Sauk, with whom they have ever since been so intimately connected that the two tribes are now practically one, their combined population being about 930.

Hewitt, John Napoleon Brinton (1859--)   Volume: X

An American ethnologist and linguist. He was born on the Tuscarora reservation, near Niagara Falls, N.Y.; with some Tuscarora blood in his veins, he learned the language of that tribe while a child. He was educated in the public schools of Wilson and Lockport and was successively farmer and journalist till 1879, when he was employed by the department of American ethnology in the Smithsonian Institution where he devoted himself to Indian ethnology and the languages of the Tuscaroras and Iroquois.

Herkimer, Nicholas    Volume: X   Page: 1

An American soldier of the Revolutionary War. He was born probably in what is now Herkimer County, N.Y. Nicholas served as a lieutenant of militia in the French and Indian War, and was in command of Fort Herkimer in 1758, when the French attack on German Flats was made. In 1775 he was commissioned a colonel of militia, and was chairman of the Committee of Safety of Tryon County. In the following year he was appointed a brigadier-general of the New York militia, and operated against Sir John Johnson. After Ticonderoga fell into the hands of Burgoyne's advancing army on July 7, 1777, Colonel Saint Leger joined Sir John Johnson at Oswego, and with a mixed force of 1800 British regulars, Tories and Iroquois Indians under Joseph Brant, advanced toward Fort Stanwix. The fort was invested on August 3d, and two days later Herkimer, with a force of 800 hastily recruited militia and volunteers, marched to its relief. Apprised by his Indians of the advance of the relieving column, Saint Leger arranged an ambuscade in a swampy ravine at Oriskany. The battle that ensued, perhaps the most obstinate and murderous of the entire Revolution, was indecisive. The Americans held the field and drove their opponents off, but lost a third of their force in dead and wounded, and were too weak to continue the advance. Saint Leger's force, on the other hand, was so crippled and disorganized as to render out of the question both the continuation of the siege and the advance southward. Early in the fight Herkimer had his horse shot under him and his leg shattered by a musket-ball; but, seated on his saddlebags underneath a tree, he continued calmly to smoke and shout out his commands until the fight was over. Ten days later he died, as a result of an unskillful operation. A monument 85 feet high was erected to his memory on the field of Oriskany in 1884.

Iconostota    Volume: XIV   Page: 730-731

A Cherokee chief and leader of his tribe in their war with the English (1759-61). Before the actual outbreak of hostilities a delegation of 32 chiefs, headed by Oconostota, had come down from the mountains to arrange a peaceable settlement of the questions at issue, but by order of Governor Lyttleton of South Carolina the whole party was seized and thrown into prison at Fort Prince George, where they were kept under close confinement until it was thought that the Indians had been terrorized into submission, when Oconostota and two others were set at liberty, the rest being still held as hostages. Oconostota collected his warriors and besieged the post, completely cutting off communication for about two months. In February, 1760, on pretense of a desire for a conference, he decoyed the commander outside the stockade, where, upon a concerted signal, the officer was shot down from ambush. All the hostages in the fort were immediately massacred by the garrison in retaliation. War now broke out along the whole Carolina border, Oconostota being the leading spirit among the Cherokee.

In June, 1760, a force of over 1600 troops under Colonel Montgomery invaded the Cherokee country and destroyed one town after another almost without resistance until Nikwasi was reached, near the present Franklin, N.C., where Montgomery was defeated and forced to retire upon Fort Prince George with heavy loss. Six weeks later the garrison of Fort Loudon, near the present Loudon, Tenn., was compelled to surrender to Oconostota in person, on promise of permission to withdraw in safety on surrender of their war stores. Finding, however, that the compact had been broken by the concealment of a large quantity of arms and ammunition, the Indians attacked the departing troops and killed 30, including the officer in charge, holding the rest as prisoners until ransomed later. In June, 1761, Colonel Grant with 2600 men again invaded the Cherokee country, and by the destruction of their fields and settlements so nearly reduced the Indians to starvation that they were finally compelled to sue for peace. Oconostota retained his authority in his nation and in 1768 headed a delegation which, at Johnston Hall in New York, concluded a lasting peace with their old-time enemies, the Iroquois. He took no active part in the Revolutionary struggle, being already worn out by infirmities, and in 1782 formally resigned his chiefship in favor of his son. He was still living in 1809.

Illinois    Volume: X   Page: 460

A group of North American Indian tribes belonging to the great Algonquian linguistic family and originally occupying the State that received their name. La Salle speaks of Lake Michigan as Lac des Illinois. Some of the separate tribes in this group were the Cahokias, after whom the gigantic pyramidal mound opposite Saint Louis was named, Kaskaskia, Michigami, Moingwena, Peoria, and Tamaroa. Most of them have left the record of their existence in place names here and there about the State.

A point of interest relating to the Illinois and other Algonquian tribes in the Ohio Valley is the question of their connection with the people who erected the great truncated pyramidal earth mounds in the Mississippi bottoms, in the western part of the State.

The Illinois came early into relations with La Salle (1670-82) and the French traders. Through the influence of the Trappist monks these tribes were held loyal to the French in their wars with the neighboring tribes and afterwards with the English. At the close of the Revolution the United States had great difficulty in subduing the Indians of this area. They now number 172, and are situated on a reservation in the Indian Territory.

Jogues, Isaac (1607-46)   Volume: XI    Page: 235

A Jesuit missionary to the North American Indians, born in France. He joined the Society of Jesus in 1624, and in 1636 was ordained and sent to the Huron mission, then the most dangerous of all which the Society maintained in the New World. There he labored until 1639, when he was chosen for the new and even more perilous mission among the Tobacco Nation. Two years later he made the long and arduous journey to Sault Sainte Marie, where he preached to an assemblage of 2000 Algonquins, and soon after his return he set out for Three Rivers to procure supplies for the Huron mission. As he was crossing the lake of Saint Peter on his return he and his companion, Goupil, were captured by the Iroquois. The prisoners were taken to the Mohawk villages and fearfully tortured. Goupil was finally killed, but Jogues was kept as a slave. His pitiable condition excited the compassion of Dominie Megapolensis and other Dutchmen at Rensselaerswyck, who finally succeeded in smuggling him aboard a vessel, which conveyed him down to New Amsterdam, where Director-General Kieft received him kindly and sent him to France.

The story of his sufferings had preceded him, and on his arrival he was received as a hero; even the Queen showed him marked attention, and the Pope gave him a special dispensation which enabled him to say mass despite the mutilated condition of his hands. He soon returned to Canada, however, and two years afterwards again went to the Mohawk villages; but this time as an ambassador from the Canadian Government and as the founder of a new mission, the Mission of the Martyrs. Having accomplished his political object, which was to confirm the Mohawks in their adhesion to a recently signed treaty of peace, he returned to Quebec, but after a council with the superiors of his Order once more went to work among the Mohawks. There having been a change in the feelings of the Indians, he was soon subjected to torture, and finally one night as he entered a lodge to which he had been invited for a feast a savage sprang from the darkness and struck him dead. The place of his martyrdom, Ossernenon, near Auriesville, N.Y., has become a place of pilgrimage to Roman Catholics. Consult: Parkman, the Jesuits in North America (Boston, 1864; new ed., 1898); Martin, Father Isaac Jogues (Shea's translation, New York, 1896); Camille de Rochemonteix, Les Jesuites et la nouvelle France (Paris, 1895); and Thwaites (ed.), The Jesuit Relations (73 vols., Cleveland, 1900-02).

John Logan (Indian Chief)    Volume: XII    Page: 403

(1725-80) A famous Indian Chief, the son of Shikellamy, a Cayuga chief noted for his friendship with the Whites. His real (Indian) name was Tagahjute, but he was generally known by his English name, Logan, given to him in honor of James Logan, William Penn's secretary and a steadfast friend of the natives. For some time prior to his removal to the banks of the Ohio about 1770, he lived near Reedsville, Pa., hunting and trading with the settlers, and soon became well known on the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontier as a brave chief, always friendly to the whites. He also became exceedingly popular among the Indians, and about this time was chosen by the Mingoes as their chief. About this time, too, he became much addicted to intemperance. In April, 1774, several whites, headed by a man named Greathouse, the keeper of a whiskey shop, murdered nearly the whole of Logan's family in cold blood at Yellow Creek. Logan, frenzied by this blow, incited the already restive Indians forthwith to attack the whites, and in the brief war which ensued was himself conspicuous for ferocity and cruelty, taking with his own hands as many as thirty scalps. He disdained to sue for peace along with the other chiefs, after the battle of Point Pleasant and instead sent to Lord Dunmore, by a trader named John Gibson, a message which is regarded as one of the finest examples of Indian eloquence, though its authenticity has been called into question its charge against Captain Cresap is certainly false, and it undoubtedly owes much to subsequent changes and embellishments. Jefferson in his Notes on Virginia quoted it (with modifications), and first directed general attention to it. After Lord Dunmore's War Logan became more and more intemperate. Finally (1780), while in a drunken frenzy, he clubbed his wife, fled, attacked a band of Indians, and was killed by his nephew in self defense. Consult: Brantz-Mayer, Tagahjute, or Logan the Indian, and Captain Michael Cresop (New York, 1867).

McGillivray, Alexander (1740-1793)   Volume: XII    Page: 615

A noted chief of the Creek Indians, the son of a Scotch trader by a half-breed woman. He was well educated at Charleston and was afterwards placed by his father with a mercantile firm in Savannah, where he remained but a short time, when he returned to the Creek country and became a partner in the firm of Panton, Forbes & Leslie, which had almost a monopoly of the Creek trade. On the death of his mother, who came of ruling stock, he succeeded to the chiefship, but refused to accept it until called to it by a formal council, when he assumed the title of Emperor of the Creek Nation. His paternal estates having been confiscated by Georgia on the outbreak of the Revolution, he joined the British side with all his warriors and was a prominent instigator in the border hostilities until 1790, when he visited New York with a large retinue and made a treaty of peace with the United States on behalf of his tribe. In accordance with special instructions from Washington to do everything possible to secure his influence for the United States, he and his party were entertained by the Tammany society, while McGillivray was persuaded to resign his commission as colonel in the Spanish service for the commission of major-general in the service of the United States. He continued to rule as principal chief of the Creek Nation until his death.

McGillivray's character exhibits a curious mixture of Scotch shrewdness, French love of display, and Indian secretiveness. At his residence in Little Talassee, on the Coosa, a few miles above the present Wetumpka, Ala., he kept a handsome house with extensive quarters for his negro slaves. In the Indian wars McGillivray tried, so far as possible, to prevent unnecessary cruelties, being noted for his kindness to captives, and his last work was an effort to bring teachers among his people. On the other hand, he conformed much to the Indian custom, and managed his negotiations with England, Spain, and the United States with such adroitness that he was able to play off one against the other, holding commissions by turn in the service of all three.


Website: The History Box.com
Article Name: Miscellaneous Tid-Bits With Regard To The American Indian Part II
Researcher/Preparer/Transcriber Miriam Medina


BIBLIOGRAPHY: From my Collection of Books: The New International Encyclopedia; 1902-1905 Dodd, Mead and Company-New York Total of 21 Volumes.
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