Miscellaneous Tid-Bits With Regard To The American Indian Part IV

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Red Jacket     Volume: XVI    Page: 769

(Sa-go-ye-wat-ha, 'he keeps them awake') (c1751-1830). A celebrated chief of the Seneca Indians. He received his English name in reference to the great pride he took in a scarlet jacket given to him shortly after the Revolution, by an English officer. During the Revolution he fought on the side of the English, and in 1784 bitterly opposed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, by which the Iroquois ceded some of their land to the United States.

Though originally without rank in his tribe, he soon, through his eloquence in council, became one of the principal chiefs. In 1810 he gave the United States Government some valuable information concerning the schemes of Tecumseh, and during the war on the frontier (1811-14) assisted the United States troops. Subsequently he became a confirmed drunkard, and for this and other reasons was disposed by a council of chiefs in 1827, but was soon restored to his old rank. He was never prominent as a warrior and seems to have been a coward, but as an orator he was unrivaled, and in council had the greatest influence. By many he has been considered the most eloquent speaker the Indian race ever produced. Though at first in favor of the education of his people, he subsequently changed his mind and became the bitterest opponent of schools and of Christianity. He has been called "the last of the Senecas," he having been the last of that tribe's great chiefs.

Saint Regis    Volume: XVII   Page: 470

A settlement of Catholic Iroquois on the south bank of the Saint Lawrence River, on both sides of the boundary line between Canada and the United States, being partly in Huntingdon County, Quebec, and partly in Franklin County, New York. The Iroquois name is Akwesasne. The village was established about the year 1755 by a party of Catholic Iroquois from Caughnawaga, Quebec. Being chiefly of Mohawk descent, the Indians all speak that language. They are expert basket-makers, and neglect farming for that industry, which proves quite remunerative. They number in all about 2500, of whom 1320 are on the Canadian side.

Siouan Stock   Volume: XVIII    Page: 199

One of the most widely extended and important linguistic groups of North America, occupying within the recent historic period the greater portion of the Plains area, but in earlier times holding also the coast and midland region of Virginia and the Carolinas, with outlying tribes upon the Gulf coast. The universal tradition of the various tribes of the stock, as well as of their Algonquian neighbors, with historical and more particularly linguistic evidence, establishes the fact that their original home was east of the Alleghanies in the South Atlantic region. When or why the first emigrants crossed over the mountains into the central region of the Ohio Valley is not known. It was probably brought about by the pressure of Iroquoian tribes from the north and of Muskhogean tribes from the west.

 It was not so remote but that the Osage, Quapaw, Omaha, Mandan, and Sioux have clear traditions of former residence upon the Ohio, followed by a westward movement down that stream and then down the Mississippi or up the Missouri to their later habitations. The Ohio itself was known among the neighboring Algonquian tribes as the river of the Quapaw, although when first known to history the Quapaw were already established upon the Arkansas. The tribal names Quapaw and Omaha, in their original form, denote respectively the people who went down or up stream from the separation point near the entrance of the Missouri. The Winnebago and Sioux apparently moved northwest across Illinois, the former fixing themselves about the lake of their name in southern Wisconsin, while the Sioux continued on toward the head of the Mississippi until compelled to turn westward by the pressure of the Ojibwa advancing from the direction of Mackinac. The expulsion of the Sioux from northern Wisconsin and the head of the Mississippi by the Ojibwa and their consequent emergence upon the plains and occupation of the Upper Missouri and the Black Hills are all within the historic period. Several tribes continued in their ancient seats, where they were known to the early colonists under the names of Monacan, Manaahoac,Saponi, Tutelo, Occaneechi, Catawba, Biloxi, and so on. All of these, excepting a mere handful of Catawba and three or four families of Biloxi, have become extinct within the historic period, chiefly from the relentless hostility of the Iroquois supplemented by dissipation and disease due to contact with civilization.

The Siouan tribes in 1903 numbered a little more than 40,000, including about 1850 Sioux and Assiniboin in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Of the entire number more than 24,000 belong to the Sioux nation.

Sitting Bull    Volume: XVIII   Page:206

(Tatanka Yotanka) (1837-90). A chief of the Sioux tribe of North American Indians. He was born in Willow Creek in the region which later became Dakota Territory, the son of Chief Jumping Bull. He killed and scalped his first enemy when only fourteen years old, and upon reaching manhood became the leader of the most unruly and warlike band of bucks in the tribe, during the Civil War led raids, and engaged in attacks upon white settlements in Iowa and Minnesota, and in 1864 was driven by General Sully into the Yellowstone and Big Horn valleys. He was on the warpath almost continuously from 1869 to 1876, either raiding the frontier posts and settlements or making war on the Crows, Shoshones, and other friendly tribes. His refusal to return to his reservation in 1876 led General Sheridan to begin against him the campaign in which General George A Custer and his force were surprised and massacred on the Little Big Horn, in June of that year. After the Custer massacre Sitting Bull and his braves escaped over the Canadian border, remaining there until 1881, when he received from General Miles a promise of amnesty and returned. He continued to wield great power among the Northwestern Indians, and in 1888 he influenced the Sioux to refuse to sell their lands. In 1890 during the prevalence of the "Messiah" craze among the Indians of the West he was considered the principal instigator of the threatened uprising. His arrest in his camp on the Grand River in North Dakota on December 15, 1890, was followed by an attempt at rescue during which he was killed.

Uncas   Volume: XIX   Page: 624

A famous sachem of the Mohegan Indians in Connecticut. At first a Pequot chief, he revolted about 1635 and collected a number of Indians, who took the name of Mohegans, which had once belonged to the Pequots, against whom he fought as an ally of the English in the Pequot War of 1637. He was rewarded by the whites with a grant of Pequot lands. In 1643 he defeated the Narraganset chief Miantonomoh, and somewhat later, with the sanction of the commissioners representing the United Colonies of New England, had him put to death. In 1648 the Mohawks and Pocomtocks began an unsuccessful war against him. In 1657 he was besieged by the Narraganset sachem Pessacus, but, according to tradition, was relieved by Ensign Thomas Leffingwell, to whom he is said to have granted the site of Norwich, Conn. The date of his death is unknown, though he is known to have been alive in 1682. A monument to his memory was erected at Norwich, Conn., in 1842. Consult: Stone, Uncas and Miantonomoh, a Historical Discourse (New York, 1842); Drake, The Book of the Indians of North America (Boston, 1834).

Van Corlear, or Van Curler, Arendt (1600-67)

A Dutch colonist in America, born in Holland. Emigrating to New Amsterdam (New York) about 1630, he became superintendent of Rensselaerswyck in 1642, and as such was called upon to conduct frequent negotiations with the Indians, whom he treated with uniform consideration and justice and over whom, in consequence, he exercised a powerful influence, by which he preserved peace for many years between them and the whites. Throughout the Mohawk country, and to a certain extent among the eastern Indians generally, the name "Corlear" soon came into use to designate the English governors (especially of New York), and was so used for more than a century. On several occasions Van Corlear rescued French prisoners from the Iroquois, or saved them from torture. In 1661 he bought the 'Great Flat' of the Mohawk River from the Indians, and in 1662 founded Schenectady, the first agricultural settlement in the province in which farmers could hold land in fee simple, free from feudal annoyances. In 1667, while on his way to Quebec to visit the French Governor, he was drowned off Split Rock, in Lake Champlain.

Weatherford, William (1780-1826)

A mixed-blood chief of the Creek Indians, the leader of the hostiles in the Creek War of 1813-14. He was the son of a white father by a half-breed woman whose father was a Scotchman. He first came into prominence by leading the attack upon Fort Mims August 30, 1813. It is maintained, with apparent truth, that he did his best to prevent the excesses which followed the victory, and left, the scene rather than witness the atrocities when he found that he could not restrain his warriors. At the battle of the Holy Ground in the following December he was defeated and narrowly escaped capture by Claiborne's troops. When the last hope of the Creeks had been destroyed and their power of resistance broken by the bloody battle of the Horseshoe Bend, March 27, 1814, in which nearly one thousand Creek warriors perished, Weatherford voluntarily surrendered to Jackson, creating such an impression by his straightforward and fearless manner that the General, after a friendly interview, allowed him to go back alone to collect his people preliminary to arranging terms of peace. After the treaty he retired to a plantation at Little River, Ala., where he passed the remainder of his life.


Website: The History Box.com
Article Name: Miscellaneous Tid-Bits With Regard To The American Indian Part IV
Researcher/Preparer/Transcriber Miriam Medina


BIBLIOGRAPHY: From my Collection of Books: The New International Encyclopedia; 1902-1905 Dodd, Mead and Company-New York Total of 21 Volumes.
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