Indian Tribes of the United States Letter D-L

From the Index of the Presidential Messages and Papers 1789-1897
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Delaware Indians

A confederacy of the Algonquian stock of Indians. They called themselves the Lenni-Lenape ("original men" or "preeminent men") and the French called them Loups (wolves). William Penn found them dwelling peaceably in the valley of the Delaware. He cultivated friendly relations with them and purchased much of their land. Their chief council fires-blazed on the site of the present city of Philadelphia. In 1726 they refused to join the Iroquois in a war against the English and were stigmatized as "women." Later they became quite warlike, but were driven beyond the Alleghanies. Near the close of the Revolution a large number of Christian Delawares were massacred by Americans. The remnants of the tribe dwelt temporarily in Ohio, and in 1818 migrated to Missouri, in 1829 to Kansas, and in 1868 to the Indian Territory, where they live among the Cherokees and are well civilized. They number about 1,600.

E (No Listing)


Fox Indians

A tribe of the Algonquian stock of Indians. They followed the example of many other red men in joining the British forces during the Revolutionary War. In 1804 they made a treaty ceding valuable lands to the Government. They renewed their alliance with the British in 1812. In 1824 and 1830 they ceded large tracts of land, and after taking part in the Black Hawk War were compelled to cede more of their territory by a treaty made with Gen. Scott. They have been successively driven from one place to another until the remainder of the tribe now occupies a small part of Oklahoma. They were incorporated at an early date with the Sac tribe.


Gros Ventre Indians

Two separate tribes of wandering Indians. The Gros Ventres of the prairie claim to have separated from the Arapahoes. After their separation they joined first one tribe and then another, and because of their infidelity suffered many hostile attacks from their neighbors. In 1824 they settled with the blackfeet, near the Milk River. Their greatest chief was Sitting Squaq. Treaties were made with them in 1851, 1853, 1855, 1865, and 1868. In 1870 they were joined by their kindred, the Arapahoes, and are now occupying a portion of the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana. They number about 1,500.

H (No listing)


Illinois Indians

A confederacy of the Algonquian stock of Indians which formerly occupied Illinois and parts of Iowa, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The principal tribes of the confederacy were the Kaskaskia, Peoria, Cahokia, Tamaroa, and Michegamea. The Illinois were allies of the French, and for this reason the Iroquois in 1678 waged a long and destructive war against them. In 1769 Pontiac, an Ottawa, who was chief of the confederation, was assassinated by a Kaskaskia Indian, and a war of extermination by the Lake tribes followed. There still remain about 165 Illinois Indians at the Quapaw Agency, Ind. T.

Iroquois Indians

One of the great families of American Indians (formerly sometimes called the Five Nations and later the Six Nations), composed of many tribes speaking languages of a common lineage. Most of the Iroquois tribes dwelt in early colonial days in the region of the Great Lakes, in what are now the Canadian Provinces of Ontario and Quebec and the States of new York and Pennsylvania. A small group of them (the Tuscaroras, etc.) occupied the region about the head waters of the Roanoke, Neuse, and branches of the Cape Fear rivers, in North Carolina and Virginia. Intellectually and physically they were the foremost of American Indians. They were almost constantly at war with their neighbors or the whites. In the struggle for American independence nearly all of the Iroquois sided with Great Britain. They now have reservations in the Dominion of Canada. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras are now settled on reservations in New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. (See also Cherokee Indians.)

J (No Listing)


Kickapoo Indians

A tribe of the Algonquian stock of Indians, who early inhabited the valleys of the Ohio and Illinois rivers. The name was used by the Indians to describe smooth running rivers without rapids. In 1779 they allied themselves with the Americans against the British, but later turned and fought the new government until they were subjugated by Wayne in 1795, when they ceded part of their lands to the whites. In 1802, 1803, and 1804 the Kickapoos ceded more territory. They joined Tecumseh and fought against the whites at Tippecanoe in 1811. They united with the British in the War of 1812, but were badly defeated. By treaties made in 1815, 1816, and 1819 they ceded still more of their territory. Portions of them became roving bands. Some of them were removed to Kansas, and afterwards a portion of the tribe migrated to Mexico, whence about 400 were in 1873 returned by the Government and placed upon a reservation in the Indian Territory. In 1894 their number in the United States and Mexico was estimated at 762.

Klamath Indians

A tribe of Indians, numbering some 600, distributed among 11 settlements in the Klamath Reservation, in Oregon. They formerly occupied a part of California, but the influx of whites led to trouble in 1851. Peace was soon restored. In 1864 they ceded large tracts of land to the Government and settled on a reservation.

L (No Listing)


Website: The History
Article Name: Indian Tribes of the United States Letter D-L
Researcher/Preparer/Transcriber Miriam Medina


BIBLIOGRAPHY: From my Collection of Books: "A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents 1789-1897". By James D. Richardson--a Representative from the State of Tennessee. Publisher: by Authority of Congress--1899. Ten volumes total. Copyright: 1897 by James D. Richardson.
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